Centre for Geohazard Observations

The mission of the Centre for Geohazard Observations is to install, maintain, and manage the Earth Observatory of Singapore’s geohazard observation networks in and around Southeast Asia. It aims to achieve high serviceability of the networks to consistently record quality data necessary to the fundamental research conducted by the Observatory.

Supporting Scientific Research

The Centre for Geohazard Observations (CGO) installs, maintains, and manages the Earth Observatory of Singapore’s (EOS) geophysical and other field instrumentation stations and networks spread over several countries in and around Southeast Asia. The CGO also conducts geophysical surveys in aid of research, providing support in various technical matters that include the acquisition, computing, and archiving of geophysical data. The Centre strives to provide an innovative and conducive technological environment for our scientists both in the field and in the laboratory. 

In providing effective technical and research support to the Observatory, CGO works closely with the Observatory researchers. Scientific requirements as well as technical and operational constrains are fully considered in all implementation and maintenance plans. CGO also works closely with our Southeast Asia collaborators, aiming to strengthen and expand the relationship to advance the regional geohazard research community.

Field Installations and Equipment

 
 

Infrasound Monitoring System

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Infrasound Monitoring System

The infrasound monitoring system employed by the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) was first used to monitor volcanic eruptions in Indonesia. This monitoring system detects low-frequency sound waves, and the data collected provides information on the location and explosivity of the eruption, allowing our scientists to determine the impact of volcanic ash on air traffic in and around Singapore.

Data from the infrasound monitoring network contributes to the tsunami early warning system, as it can detect  sound waves from the tsunami source well before the tsunami waves reach the coastline.

EOS is currently developing its capacity of infrasound monitoring in Singapore. The first part of its infrasound system was installed in Singapore in August, 2013, to monitor distant volcanic eruptions. The station caught the infrasound signal from the Kelut volcano eruption in February, 2014.

This system, which can detect very low frequency sound waves in the air, provides...

GNSS stations

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GNSS stations

The Centre for Geohazard Observations (CGO) was tasked to install several stations all over the region to continuously record the sea level. This is a relatively new method of recording sea level rise through the use of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), instead of traditional tide gauges that we have normally engaged. By analysing the GNSS data that was recorded over a long period of time, researchers will be able to determine the sea level in the area where direct-and-reflected GNSS signals are recorded. To achieve optimum usability of the data, the stations are installed near the coastline, where the reflected GNSS signal from the water can be received by the antenna. 

In doing so, EOS has collaborated with local research institutions in every geographic location where the GNSS stations are installed. Our first station was installed in Taiwan in 2019, which was achieved with the collaboration of the Institute of Earth Science – Academia Sinica, Taiwan. 

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Airborne LiDAR

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Airborne LiDAR

The Earth Observatory of Singapore has developed its capability of aerial acquisition of LiDAR data (Airborne-LiDAR). The Centre for Geoohazard Observations has carried out airborne-LiDAR surveys in Nepal and Myanmar. Compared to the Ground-LiDAR, the Airborne-LiDAR is suitable for large-area/regional high-resolution surveys. This technique provides real topography through ultra-high resolution, vegetation-free images of an area as large as several square kilometres.

Click on each image to view them in the gallery below.

Myanmar-Bangladesh-Assam GPS Network

MIBB GPS Network

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MIBB GPS Network

EOS' Myanmar-India-Bangladesh and Bhutan GPS Network comprises stations along North-South and East-West transects. The North-South transect is intended to measure the convergence across the Himalayan front and the Shillong Plateau. The East-West transects will reveal the nature of strain accumulation across both the fold and thrust belt of the Indo-Burman Range and northern Sagaing fault. The networks, linked by a satellite-based communication system, monitor the tectonic motion in several earthquake hotspots within South and Southeast Asia, thus providing essential information for scientists to understand the earthquake potentials from these mega fault-systems on earth. The information collected from these monitoring stations also has the potential to improve the current tsunami early warning system after an major earthquake event. CGO at EOS is fully capable of selecting the optimal site for the GPS monitoring stations, installing and maintaining these stations, as well as...

Ground-penetrating Radar

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Ground-penetrating Radar

Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) is a technique that uses high-frequency radio waves to image the subsurface of the Earth. This technique is often used by our scientists to study sediment deposits related to coastal hazards in Southeast Asia.

The use of GPR at EOS provides scientists with useful information about material properties at shallow depths of the earth. This technique has been widely used in many other research fields for decades.

Scientists in EOS use this technique extensively to study the sedimentology related to the coastal hazards in Southeast Asia, such as tracing unusual typhoon events, and the deposits from the tsunami waves. EOS also uses GPR in Nepal to sense the location of the giant fault at the root of the Himalayan mountain range. This giant fault ruptured in 1934 and caused great destruction to the Nepal area.

The CGO and EOS scientists are fully capable of acquiring, processing, and interrelating the GPR data.

LIDAR

Terrestrial LiDAR

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Terrestrial LiDAR

The Earth Observatory of Singapore acquired a LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) device in 2010. It is a RIEGL VZ-400, with a range up to 600m at Laser class 1, repeatability of 3mm, and a measurement rate of up to 125 000 measurements per second.

The LIDAR measures the distance to a target by emitting light pulses. This instrument can scan the topography with exquisite precision. LIDAR datasets are used in tectonics to map faults and earthquake rupture offsets: the accuracy of this instrument allows researchers to constrain precisely the slip-distribution of various faults in Asia; with complimentary dating, scientists can also estimate earthquake cycles on a given fault. Sedimentologists also use the LIDAR to map precisely various outcrops.

This technique provides real topography through ultra-high-resolution, vegetation-free images of an area as large as several square kilometres. The CGO at EOS is fully capable of acquiring and processing Ground-LiDAR data.

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Fieldwork Blog

EOS and CVGHM Celebrate a Decade of Collaboration

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EOS and CVGHM Celebrate a Decade of Collaboration

22 Feb 2021

Last December, the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) celebrated the 10th anniversary of its collaboration with the Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM).

Over the past decade, EOS and CVGHM have shared knowledge, expertise, and adventures through fieldwork, workshops, and publications.

"This long-term collaboration has enabled us to refine eruption histories, unravel magma storage conditions and eruption dynamics, further our understanding of related geophysical signals, and evaluate the implications in terms of hazards in one of the most populated and volcanologically active regions of the world," said Assistant Professor Caroline Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, a Principal Investigator at EOS.

Dr Hanik Humaida, Head of the Geological Disaster Technology Research and Development Center (BPPTKG), the Technical Implementation Unit under CVGHM, reflected on the progress and achievements of this partnership over the past 10 years: "...

Pandemics & Natural Hazards: The Way Forward for Earth Scientists in a Global Lockdown

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Pandemics & Natural Hazards: The Way Forward for Earth Scientists in a Global Lockdown

14 May 2020

Pandemics & Natural Hazards is a special series for the EOS Blog which looks at the compounding impacts of coinciding disasters. This third commentary is a contribution from EOS’ Centre for Geohazard Observations.

The daily coverage of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the media has given the public an insight into how the crisis has impacted the healthcare sector. We’ve seen footage of hospitals inundated with stricken patients, hospital staff begging for supplies, and the global race to find the medical holy grail of the moment – a COVID-19 vaccine.

But what about the other sectors of science that are not directly linked to the coronavirus? How are they coping with, even transforming in, this pandemic and the ensuing cross-border lockdowns?

The Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS), for example, is an Earth Science research institute that conducts fundamental research into natural hazards and disaster risk reduction in southeast (...

New Seismic Network Sheds Light on Myanmar’s Tectonic Activity

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New Seismic Network Sheds Light on Myanmar’s Tectonic Activity

20 Nov 2017

Scientists have long known that Myammar is tectonically vulnerable. But only recently, says Dr Paramesh Banerjee, have they been able to understand the full extent of the country’s seismic activity. 

This new insight is made possible by the new Myanmar Seismic Network (MSN), established earlier this year. The network comprises 30 broadband seismometers, scattered throughout the country from the northernmost Kachin state, all the way to the Tenasserim Division in the south.

Dr Banerjee, Technical Director at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS), led a team who built the network in collaboration with the Myanmar Earthquake Committee, and the Department of Meteorology and Hydrology in Myanmar.

The entire project took one year to complete–Dr Banerjee’s team began selecting possible sites to place the seismometers in July 2016, and the final seismometer station was constructed by July 2017.

At each of the 30 stations in the network, a high quality...

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