Investigating cycles of caldera formation at Rabaul, Papua New Guinea

If a volcano is rumbling then we can expect an eruption, but how big will that eruption be? Currently we have little idea of how to forecast the size of future eruptions. Caldera complexes produce the most voluminous and violent eruptions on Earth and leave a large caldron-like depression in the landscape. These volcanoes often appear to have cycles of activity, with long periods of repeated smaller eruptions followed by one large eruption. By studying one complete cycle, we aim to find out what happens differently before large and small eruptions, to give more warning of an impending caldera-forming eruption.

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