Process of sea-level rise due to land-based ice sheets mass loss and, conversely, a sea-level fall when sea water transfers into land-based ice sheets.

Process of thermosteric sea-level rise due to an increase in the temperature (beyond 4 degrees Celsius) of seawater and, conversely, a sea-level fall when the temperature of seawater decrease

Increasing sea levels cause the base for extreme events such as storm surges to rise, raising their maximum run up heights and the inland distance they affect.

The process of land moving up and down in response to the load of an ice sheet and the transfer of mantle back and forth creating a forebulge.

The process of land subsidence from compaction due to urbanisation and/or ground water withdrawal exacerbating sea-level rise.

The process of water being attracted to an ice sheet due to its gravitational pull and conversely water retreating as ice melts and its gravitational pull weakens.

Block-diagram showing a cross-section of the subduction zone beneath the islands of Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa in Indonesia.

Block-diagram showing a cross-section of the subduction zone beneath the Philippines. The Philippine tectonic plate (on the right) dives under the Eurasian plate (on the left).

Block-diagram showing a cross-section of the Sunda Megathrust. The Indo-Australian tectonic plate (on the left) dives under the Eurasian plate (on the right).

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