Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Sedimentary Geology, Volume 358, p.121-138 (2017)
Marine inundation associated with the 5 to 8 m storm surge of Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 left overwash sediments inland on the coastal plains of the northwestern shores of Leyte Gulf, Philippines. The Haiyan overwash deposit provides a modern sedimentary record of storm surge deposition from a Category 5 landfalling typhoon. We studied overwash sediments at two locations that experienced similar storm surge conditions but represent contrasting sedimentological regimes, namely a siliciclastic coast and a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate coast. The contrasting local geology is significantly reflected in the differences in sediment grain size, composition and sorting at the two sites. The Haiyan overwash sediments are predominantly sand and silt and can be traced up to similar to 1.6 km inland, extending farther beyond the previously reported <300 m inland limit of sedimentation. Sites with similar geology, topographic relief, and overland flow conditions show significant spatial variability of sediment thickness and inland extent. We infer that other local factors such as small-scale variations in topography and the type of vegetation cover might influence the spatial distribution of overwash sediments. The Haiyan overwash deposits exhibit planar stratification, a coarsening upward sequence, a non-systematic landward fining trend, and a sharp depositional (rarely erosional) basal contact with the underlying substrate. Overall, the Haiyan deposits have sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics that show a hybrid signature common to both storm and tsunami deposits.