Project Overview

The Holocene epoch was marked by substantial temporal and spatial variations in relative sea-level (RSL) and provides a potential analogue for understanding current and future RSL rise. Most reconstructions for Holocene sea level are done in near-field (underneath the ice sheets) or intermediate-field (at the margins of ice sheets) regions, but Holocene sea-level records for far-field (distal from ice sheets) regions (e.g. Singapore), are less complete. Mid-Holocene highstands in farfield regions, where sea level rose above modern levels, occurred in Singapore but the timing and magnitude of the highstand remain poorly constrained. The sea-level fall record during the late Holocene is also poorly represented for Singapore

Here, we are working towards improving our understanding of Holocene sea-level change for Singapore by synthesising sea-level data from existing literature and reconstructing Singapore Holocene sea level using state-of-the-art techniques and advanced statistical methods. We obtained 8 high-recovery sediment cores from within the Kallang River Basin which would potentially produce a number of new sea-level index points. We also identified data gaps in the Singapore sea-level record, in particular the mid-late Holocene, and aim to obtain new high-resolution RSL records from various locations in Singapore (e.g., Jurong Lake, Sentosa). These efforts will help address the following outstanding research questions: 

1. What were the timing and magnitude of the Mid-Holocene highstand for Singapore?
2. Have sea levels in Singapore fallen below modern levels during the late Holocene?
3. What were the driving mechanisms of RSL change in Singapore during the Holocene?
4. How have sea levels in Singapore responded to climatic variability compared to global trends during the Holocene?

Funding Sources

  • Earth Observatory of Singapore

Project Years

2020, 2021, 2022

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Year 2020

A new Quaternary stratigraphy of the Kallang River Basin, Singapore: Implications for urban development and geotechnical engineering in Singapore

Stephen Chua, Adam Switzer, Benjamin P. Horton, Cassandra Rowe, Kiefer Chiam, Michael I. Bird, et al.

The Team

Benjamin HORTON

Benjamin HORTON

Director, EOS



Principal Investigator



Principal Investigator

Stephen CHUA

Stephen CHUA

Research Assistant Professor

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