Deglacial perspectives of future sea level for Singapore

Publication type

Journal Article

Research Area


Research Team

Sea Level Research

Geographic Area

Asia > Southeast Asia > Singapore


Low elevation equatorial and tropical coastal regions are highly vulnerable to sea level rise. Here we provide probability perspectives of future sea level for Singapore using regional geological reconstructions and instrumental records since the last glacial maximum ~21.5 thousand years ago. We quantify magnitudes and rates of sea-level change showing deglacial sea level rose from ~121 m below present level and increased at averaged rates up to ~15 mm/yr, which reduced the paleogeographic landscape by ~2.3 million km2. Projections under a moderate emissions scenario show sea level rising 0.95 m at a rate of 7.3 mm/yr by 2150 which has only been exceeded (at least 99% probability) during rapid ice mass loss events ~14.5 and ~9 thousand years ago. Projections under a high emissions scenario incorporating low confidence ice-sheet processes, however, have no precedent during the last deglaciation.

Publication Details


Communications Earth & Environment





Date Published


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